Las células de la piel humana pueden convertirse directamente en neuronas funcionales

Recuerda que eres tan bueno como lo mejor que hayas hecho en tu vida

       Billy Wilder

 Investigadores del Centro Médico de la Universidad de Columbia (Estados Unidos) han logrado convertir por primera vez células epidérmicas en neuronas prosencefálicas funcionales sin necesidad de células madre. Según el estudio, que se publica en Cell, los investigadores han conseguido encontrar una forma más directa de producir células de reemplazo para terapias contra el alzheimer y otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Estas células pueden ser especialmente útiles para probar nuevos tratamientos terapéuticos.

“Este método, comunmente denominado reprogramación, se usó por primera vez para generar neuronas a partir de células epidérmicas en pacientes con principio de Alzheimer. Se descubrió que las neuronas inducidas diferían significativamente de las provenientes de individuos sanos, proporcionando nuevos conocimientos sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad”, ha explicado Asa Abeliovich, profesor de patología y biología celular en el Centro Médico de la Universidad de Columbia.

Abeliovich y su equipo usaron diferentes combinaciones de reguladores de transcripción sumados a numerosos factores de apoyo neuronales, para convertir las células epidérmicas humanas en células neuronales. Las neuronas creadas parecen ser iguales que las normales, según las pruebas electrofisiológicas realizadas. Ademas, también mostraron que eran capaces de recibir y enviar señales, tanto en los cultivos realizados en el laboratorio como una vez transplantadas al sistema nervioso de los ratones. Este descubrimiento indica que las neuronas inducidas son capaces de generar actividad.

“La reprogramación directa es fundamentalmente diferente respecto a crearlas con tecnología de células madre”, ha dicho Abeliovich. “Utilizando este método es posible, en teoría, coger algunas células epidérmicas y en un par de semanas obtener neuronas totalmente funcionales, listas para una terapia de células de reemplazo”.


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