Las células ependimarias pueden ser claves en la renovación neuronal

La ignorancia es la noche de la mente, pero una noche sin luna ni estrellas


Investigadores de la Universidad de Duke, en Estados Unidos, han encontrado que una fuente que sustenta la producción de nuevas neuronas en el cerebro de ratones también puede estar presente en el cerebro humano.

La existencia de un sistema de apoyo a las células madre en el cerebro explica por qué estas células por sí solas no pueden generar neuronas in vitro, según desvelan en la edición online de Neuron.

Chay Kuo, autor principal del estudio, ha observado que las células ependimarias de tipo epitelial poseen una estructura especial que mantiene a las células madre neurales con capacidad neurogénica. Las células madre neurales, in vitro, “no continúan creando neuronas como lo harían en el cerebro”. En cambio, producen astrocitos, cuyo crecimiento no controlado puede conducir al desarrollo de tumores cerebrales.

Células relacionadas
Los investigadores descubrieron que la generación de nuevas neuronas depende de células ependimarias ciliadas. Kuo decidió estudiar estas células porque los ventrículos laterales del cerebro, donde residen las células madre neurales adultas, son la última área del cerebro en desarrollo que crea células ependimarias: “Los progenitores comunes de las glías radiales en el sistema nervioso en desarrollo, anterior al nacimiento, dan lugar tanto a las células ependimarias como a células madre adultas. Por eso tiene sentido estudiarlas juntas”.

Los autores revelan una “fuente de la juventud” en el interior del cerebro adulto, “que produce activamente nuevas neuronas; pero no sabemos cómo se forma o se mantiene”. Según han descubierto, el factor de transcripción Foxj1 es fundamental para que las células ependimarias se ensamblen en forma circular, modelando la arquitectura que rodea a las células madre. La proteína estructural anquirina-3 es activada por Foxj1 en las células ependimarias para proveer este soporte estructural a las células madre: “Las señales generadas por este apoyo pueden ser importantes para que las células madre neurales introducidas creen nuevas neuronas”.

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