“El concepto actual para la aplicación de medicamentos es antediluviano”

El secreto de la sabiduría, del poder y del conocimiento es la humildad

Ernest Hemingway

Medicina regenerativa, nanobiotecnología, biología de sistemas, nutrigenómica, biosensores… En el congreso Biotec 2010, que se está celebrando en Pamplona coincidiendo con el de Biospain, tienen cabida todos los términos de la biomedicina del futuro. José Luis García López, que lo organiza como presidente de Sebiot, valora sus posibilidades.

 José Luis García López cederá en el congreso Biospain 2010, que se está celebrando en Pamplona, la presidencia de la Sociedad Española de Biotecnología a Carmen Vela, directora general de Ingenasa. Como organizador del congreso científico Biotec, que se desarrolla en el marco de Biospain, ha hablado con Diario Médico sobre el futuro de la biomedicina. La terapia celular puede ser útil a corto plazo. Se está trabajando mucho en enfermedad coronaria, con regeneración de tejido infartado, y en patologías derivadas de úlceras también hay avances, tal y como está demostrando la biotecnológica Cellerix. Además, cree que a corto-medio plazo se hallarán soluciones en diabetes.

Regresión celular
Una de las barreras de la medicina regenerativa es la adaptación al nuevo tejido. Lo más lógico es utilizar células autólogas, pero para lograr una buena compatibilidad celular hay que generar histocompatibilidad. Los avances más interesantes se están dando en la regresión celular: “Perseguimos volver a un estado en que la célula tenga más capacidad de pluripotencialidad, sin llegar a su origen embrionario”.

García-López tiene puestas grandes esperanzas en la nanobiotecnología. La búsqueda de nuevos formatos para la dispensación de fármacos, que eviten problemas de toxicidad derivados de la liberación directa en sangre o tejido, está protagonizada por nanoconductores. Es posible introducir moléculas en ambientes no dañinos antes de su liberación en el lugar concreto, pero hay que salvar problemas como el atravesar barreras biológicas: “La hematoencefálica es especialmente difícil de cruzar, básicamente porque si no lo fuera estaríamos muertos. El recubrimiento de nanotubos con material biológico, dentro de los cuales iría el medicamento, puede engañar al organismo y facilitar esta entrada. Otra solución es dotar a los nanotubos “de propiedades magnéticas o fotosensibles, para dirigirlos al lugar adecuado y actuar de forma selectiva en, por ejemplo, casos de cáncer”. El resultado es la introducción “de un caballo de Troya en la célula tumoral, que se activa desde el exterior”.

La actualidad en torno a los biosensores también se está tratando en Biotec 2010. Los hay externos (los de glucosa son el ejemplo más clásico, aunque los ligados al colesterol tienen gran desarrollo en la actualidad), pero el futuro es también de los biosensores integrados, “sustitutivos de órganos y tejidos”. La posibilidad de disponer de un páncreas artificial, que mida los niveles de glucosa y libere insulina, no está tan lejos, aunque existe el reto de facilitar “algún tipo de energía biológica para estos biomotores celulares”.

Conocer el ‘yo’ genético
García López cree que “el concepto que tenemos de los medicamentos es antediluviano”. Las soluciones farmacológicas se aportan “prácticamente en función del peso corporal, y apenas sabemos cómo actúan sobre cada individuo”. Saber cómo metaboliza cada individuo, y unir esta información a factores externos como la dieta y el ejercicio, permitirá una mayor eficacia terapéutica.

En definitiva, García López promulga una medicina a la carta en la que las llamadas “ómicas” constituyen un pilar básico. El impulso que ofrecerán a la medicina la genómica, la proteómica, la transcriptómica, la metabolómica y otras “será inmenso, aunque no inmediato”. La secuenciación genómica influirá de manera definitiva porque acercará la medicina preventiva moderna, “que debe basarse en el conocimiento del yo genético”.


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