Bmpr1a regula la quiescencia de las troncales del hipocampo

celulas quiescentesIDENTIFICAN LA SEÑAL Y EL RECEPTOR CELULAR QUE CONTROLA LA LATENCIA.

Más del 90 por ciento de las células madre o troncales del hipocampo, que nos acompañan desde el nacimiento hasta el envejecimiento, se encuentran en un estado inactivo o latente (quiescencia), pero no se sabe bien cómo se regula esta inactividad basal. Un trabajo, que se publica hoy en Cell Stem Cell, apunta algunas claves de esa regulación.

Helena Mira, codirectora del estudio e investigadora en la Unidad de Neurobiología Molecular del Centro Nacional de Microbiología (CNM), del Instituto Carlos III, de Madrid, explica a DM que “hemos identificado la señal y el receptor celular responsable de la quiescencia de las células madre neuronales del hipocampo. Hemos bloqueado tanto la señal como el receptor (llamado Bmpr1a) en ratones adultos y así conseguimos interferir el estado latente predominante. De esta manera pudimos comprobar que al aumentar la actividad de las células madre se incrementa la producción de nuevas neuronas. No obstante, también observamos que si se fuerza su división en exceso las células madre pueden agotarse“. Mira inició el estudio durante su etapa posdoctoral en el laboratorio de Fred Gage, en el Instituto Salk (La Jolla, California), aunque la mayor parte lo ha desarrollado en el Carlos III, con el apoyo de otros investigadores alemanes y del grupo de Isabel Fariñas, en la Universidad de Valencia.

Los resultados obtenidos quedan por el momento limitados a la investigación básica, aunque podrían servir para obtener algunas pistas sobre cómo movilizar de forma controlada y dirigida esa reserva latente de células madre del cerebro. “La movilización es un camino prometedor para al desarrollo, en un futuro de nuevas estrategias de terapia celular para enfermedades neurodegenerativas y/o daño cerebral. No obstante, debe quedar claro que actualmente la investigación en terapias basadas en células madre para la reparación del daño cerebral asociado a la neurodegeneración no contempla esta vía más que en estudios muy básicos. Por el momento, la investigación en medicina regenerativa para el tratamiento de enfermedades neurodegenerativas se basa en el trasplante de células para reemplazar las neuronas degeneradas o para neuroproteger a aquéllas que aún no han degenerado totalmente”, matiza Mira.

En esta misma línea de investigación, un grupo de científicos del Instituto de Inmunobiología Max Planck, en Friburgo (Alemania), publicó también en la revista Cell Stem Cell un trabajo -más descriptivo que el de Mira, que desvela los mecanismos de regulación- donde se indicaba que la actividad física revertía la quiescencia de las troncales nerviosas del hipocampo. “Efectivamente, la actividad física moderada puede revertir la quiescencia. De hecho, ya hay evidencias en el modelo de ratón de que el ejercicio bloquea la vía de señalización de BMP (que hemos caracterizado) y, por tanto, pensamos que el ejercicio y muchos otros estímulos que favorecen la neurogénesis adulta pueden converger en el control de dicha vía para regular el equilibrio entre quiescencia y proliferación, que caracteriza a las células madre del cerebro adulto. Nuestros resultados también sugieren que la señalización por BMP se vuelve dominante con el tiempo, lo cual desplazaría el equilibrio hacia el estado de quiescencia y haría más difícil la producción de nuevas neuronas en el cerebro envejecido”. 

Fuente: www.diariomedico.com

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