Descubren unas nuevas neuronas con capacidad de viajar entre las regiones cerebrales

El hallazgo abre nuevas expectativas en la comprensión del desarrollo temprano del cerebro.

Un grupo de neuronas, hasta ahora desconocidas, tiene la capacidad de abandonar la zona donde se originan, el hipotálamo, cruzar fronteras entre regiones cerebrales y colonizar el cerebro anterior, según un estudio de un equipo de investigadores del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), publicado en Nature Neuroscience.

Así, en dicha zona se mezclan con las neuronas locales para formar la amígdala, un conjunto de núcleos neuronales donde se regulan emociones como la rabia, la ansiedad o el miedo. Precisamente, las alteraciones en la amígdala pueden generar desórdenes neuro-psiquiátricos, como la ausencia patológica del miedo, la depresión o la esquizofrenia.

En este sentido, el investigador que dirige el estudio, Juan de Carlos, del Instituto Cajal (CSIC) ha señalado que conocer cómo se origina el conjunto de núcleos de neuronas que conforman la amígdala es “fundamental para entender los desórdenes psiquiátricos” provocados por la alteración de esta parte del cerebro anterior, como la carencia patológica de miedo, la depresión o la esquizofrenia”.

Además, la investigación explica que la capacidad de las neuronas inmigrantes de alcanzar una región cerebral alejada se debe a un gen llamado Orthopedia (Otp), cuyas alteraciones producen un desarrollo anormal en la amígdala. Al inactivar “de forma experimental” este gen, se descubrió que las células hipotalámicas no podrían iniciar un viaje migratorio para alcanzar los núcleos amigdalianos. “Esto causaba una deficiencia celular que se traducía en un volumen menor de los núcleos que constituyen la amígdala, tras lo que se podría esperar una patología funcional de dicha estructura”, explicó de Carlos.

El investigador considera que estos nuevos resultados abren “inesperadas expectativas para la comprensión del desarrollo temprano del cerebro”, puesto que al demostrar que la amígdala se genera con la participación de neuronas inmigrantes procedentes de otra región cerebral, “va a haber que replantearse el origen de muchas agrupaciones neuronales que se presuponían sólidamente establecidas”.

En el trabajo han participado también los investigadores Fernando García-Moreno, Laura López-Mascaraque y María Pedraza, del Instituto Cajal (CSIC), en Madrid, en colaboración con el equipo de Antonio Simeone, de la Universidad de Nápoles.

Fuente: Nature Neuroscience 13, 680 – 689 (2010); 23 May 2010

152 Responses to “Descubren unas nuevas neuronas con capacidad de viajar entre las regiones cerebrales”

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